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Thermodynamic temperature scale: a temperature scale that is independent of the properties of the substances that are used to measure temperature

The Carnot heat engine: is the hypothetical heat engine that operates on the reversible Carnot cycle

The thermal efficiency of the Carnot heat engine

$$

\eta_{\mathrm{th}}=1-\frac{Q_{L}}{Q_{H}}

$$

The Carnot refrigerator or a heat pump: refrigerator or a heat pump that operates on the reversed Carnot cycle.

The coefficient ofperformance of any refrigerator or heat pump:

$$

\operatorname{COP}_{\mathrm{R}}=\frac{1}{Q_{H} / Q_{L}-1} \text { and } \mathrm{COP}_{\mathrm{HP}}=\frac{1}{1-Q_{L} / Q_{H}}

$$

$$

\begin{array}{l}{\mathrm{COP}_{\mathrm{R}, \mathrm{rev}}=\frac{1}{T_{H} / T_{L}-1}} \\ {\mathrm{COP}_{\mathrm{HP}, \mathrm{rev}}=\frac{1}{1-T_{L} / T_{H}}}\end{array}

$$

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